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Welcome to Dr. Carole's blog, where you can read information relevant to your child's health!

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Staying hydrated in the winter

Posted on November 15, 2017 at 5:20 AM

How much water do kids need?

- Depends on weight; typical preschoolers need 35-40oz of water (adults need 64oz per day)

- There is water in almost all of the food we eat, so this can make calculating water intake a little tricky


Why we get dehydrated in winter

- Heaters dry out the air

- Children sweat playing outside in snowsuits and coming into a warm house from the outdoors

- Sun reflects off snow - they get at least as much sun exposure as s...

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Hand washing and other ways to avoid flu

Posted on October 15, 2017 at 6:20 AM

How flu is spread

- Most viruses are spread by contact with respiratory secretions (saliva and mucus that are expelled when a person coughs or sneezes)

- Virus particles can linger on inanimate objects (toys, surfaces, doorknobs, sink handles, phones, computers, etc)

- Flu is also airborne, meaning it can travel across a room


What a sick person can do to not infect others

- Cough/sneeze into their elbow or shirt (so particles don’t get onto hand...

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Sore throat with white spots - is it strep?

Posted on September 15, 2017 at 7:20 AM

Things you might see in all kinds of sore throats (pharyngitis)

- Throat pain, redness, enlarged tonsils

- Swollen lymph nodes (glands in neck)

- Trouble eating/swallowing, lack of appetite

- Fever

- White spots on tonsils


Viral sore throat

In addition to all those above, they tend to also have:

- Cough, sneezing, and/or runny nose

- Vomiting and diarrhea

- Fever is usually lower than 102

- There are many kinds of ...

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Sore throat with white spots - is it strep?

Posted on September 15, 2017 at 7:20 AM

Things you might see in all kinds of sore throats (pharyngitis)

- Throat pain, redness, enlarged tonsils

- Swollen lymph nodes (glands in neck)

- Trouble eating/swallowing, lack of appetite

- Fever

- White spots on tonsils


Viral sore throat

In addition to all those above, they tend to also have:

- Cough, sneezing, and/or runny nose

- Vomiting and diarrhea

- Fever is usually lower than 102

- There are many kinds of ...

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ADHD - how to recognize it and when to treat it

Posted on August 15, 2017 at 7:15 AM

What is ADHD?

- A neurodevelopmental disorder

- Impairs a child’s ability to function normally

- Not just “extra energy” or hyperactivity - a true medical diagnosis

- Difficulty filtering what is important

- 6 out of 9 symptoms must be present most or all of the time (without medication) to be diagnosed


Attention deficit (inattentive type)

- Poor attention to details or making careless mistakes

- Difficulty sustaini...

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ADHD - how to recognize it and when to treat it

Posted on August 15, 2017 at 7:15 AM

What is ADHD?

- A neurodevelopmental disorder

- Impairs a child’s ability to function normally

- Not just “extra energy” or hyperactivity - a true medical diagnosis

- Difficulty filtering what is important

- 6 out of 9 symptoms must be present most or all of the time (without medication) to be diagnosed


Attention deficit (inattentive type)

- Poor attention to details or making careless mistakes

- Difficulty sustaini...

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Protect against sunburn!

Posted on July 15, 2017 at 9:15 AM

Why it matters

- Sunburns sustained in childhood predispose to melanoma (skin cancer) later in life

- Even mild sunburns (“tans”) can lead to cancer


Sunscreen

- Use SPF 30 or higher (I recommend 50 in Colorado)

- Needs to be applied 30 minutes before going outside to be effective

- Needs to be reapplied after sweating or after playing in water (swimming, running through sprinkler, playing in water table, washing hands, etc.), even if...

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Which vaccines does my child need?

Posted on June 15, 2017 at 9:10 AM

Required vaccines for school in Colorado: DTaP, Polio, Hib, HepB, PCV, MMR, Varicella


DTaP (Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis)

- 5 doses - given at ages 2, 4, and 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years.

- Diphtheria - very rare since the vaccine came out - it’s a severe sore throat with a high fever; the bacteria can cause thin membranes to grow across the throat and the child can suffocate.

- Tetanus - a bacterial infection caused by de...

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What is positive guidance?

Posted on May 15, 2017 at 9:05 AM

- Guiding children’s behavior in a way that helps them feel confident, secure, and noticed

- Letting children know you are on their team

- Fostering self-esteem and independence

- It is done by establishing predictable routines, setting clear rules, having age-appropriate limits, and modeling kindness and respect


Benefits of positive guidance

- Children feel safe to trust limits and consequences; they are not surprised by a sudden consequence

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Outdoor play is important!

Posted on April 15, 2017 at 11:45 AM

Health benefits

- Children who play outside regularly are happier, healthier, and stronger

- Immune system is stronger due to exposure to environment

- Sun exposure produces Vitamin D in the body

- Outdoor play can help prevent nearsightedness

- Children who play outdoors at school are more likely to play outdoors at home

- Children who enjoy the outdoors are more likely to enjoy hiking, jogging, biking, climbing, and other healthy outdoor activities as ad...

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Shut off the TV!

Posted on March 15, 2017 at 7:45 AM

Screen time

- The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends less than 2 hours per day of screen time

- For children under age 2, the recommendation recently changed from no screen time to up to 1 hour of supervised / educational screen time - the parent should be interacting with their child while the screen is on, rather than using the screen as a babysitter.


Reasons to limit screen time

- Children younger than 18 months are unable to realize that ...

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Colic - How to treat it and when to seek medical help

Posted on March 1, 2017 at 7:25 AM

Most babies will cry an average of 1.5 to 2 hours per day, but babies with colic cry more than 3 hours per day for 3 or more days per week. Colic usually happens between 3 weeks and 3 months old - all of these 3’s are considered the “rule of 3’s” for colic. True colic affects about 1 in 6 babies.

 

A colic cry is high-pitched, intense, and not relieved by normal measures (feeding, changing the diaper, or holding your baby).


 

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Separation anxiety and other transitions

Posted on February 15, 2017 at 2:40 PM

Separation anxiety - what does it look like?

- Can occur any time from age 6 months through childhood

- Often occurs at the beginning but can begin later in the school year

- Symptoms: crying, tantrums, clinginess, physical symptoms (headaches, tummy aches, vomiting, etc.)

- Regressed behavior - accidents, thumb sucking, acting younger than their age

- Worse if a child is tired, hungry, or getting sick


Help for parents

Separation anxiety i...

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Burns - How to treat at home, and when to see a doctor

Posted on February 1, 2017 at 6:05 PM

Burns - How to treat at home, and when to see a doctor

 

Burns can be caused by many things, including UV rays from the sun (sunburn), water, grease, hot food, chemicals, electricity. They are classified by severity - first, second, third, and fourth degree.

 

First degree burns are your typical sunburn, where the skin looks pink/red and is dry and painful to touch. They can also be caused by hot water (between 120’F and 220’F), which is why I...

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Get over that cold!

Posted on January 12, 2017 at 3:25 PM

Do you have that horrible, lingering cold that's going around?  You know, the one with cough, congestion, runny nose, sinus pressure, ear pressure, and/or fever, that has been lasting for weeks?  Here are some tips to help you get over it quicker:

 

For adults and children who are over the age of 6:

1. Decongestants: I recommend Afrin nose spray and pseudoephedrine (the real Sudafed); I do NOT recommend phenylephrine because it has been shown in recent studie...

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Rashes and other Allergic Reactions

Posted on January 1, 2017 at 2:35 PM

Hives:

- Wheal and flare - white swollen center, flat red surrounding area - Itchy, not painful

- Change/move over time

- Generally not dangerous on their own, unless they are in the mouth/throat

- Call a doctor immediately if your child also has cough, itchy throat, swollen lips, trouble swallowing, drooling, or vomiting


Contact dermatitis:

- Red, dry patch that is itchy and not painful

- Generally the same shape as the allergen

- R...

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The four common causes of acne, and five steps to treat it

Posted on November 15, 2016 at 3:30 PM

Acne is mainly caused by 4 factors: sebum, hormones, an immune response, and bacteria.

 

Sebum is produced by sebaceous glands in the skin; it is a waxy substance that helps keep the skin and hair shafts moisturized. When sebum is being produced faster than it can leave the sebaceous gland, the gland gets plugged up and forms a blackhead (also called an open comedone). When the skin is dry, it produces more sebum. This is why over-washing your face, especially with harsh s...

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The 8 most common food allergies in children, and how to test for them

Posted on September 16, 2016 at 4:35 PM

The most common food allergies in children are:

Dairy (cow’s milk)

Eggs

Peanuts

Tree nuts (almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, brazil nuts, cashews, etc.)

Wheat

Soy

Fish

Shellfish

 

Children tend to outgrow dairy, egg, and soy allergies in the first few years of life, and do not tend to outgrow fish, shellfish, peanut, and tree nut allergies.

 

Reasons to suspect your child has a food allergy include:

Ecz...

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Measles in Denver!

Posted on July 20, 2016 at 1:35 AM

Last week, a child in Denver was diagnosed with measles. This is a big deal because measles is VERY contagious; it spreads by airborne transmission, meaning it can cross an entire room in seconds and expose everyone in it. Not everyone who is exposed will get measles; some people’s immune systems are able to fight it off, especially if they have already been vaccinated. But no vaccine is 100% protective.

 

The incubation period is 1-3 weeks, meaning that after a pers...

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Dr. Carole's philosophy

Posted on July 9, 2016 at 5:25 PM

Last week I posted 12 basic questions to ask a pediatrician or family practice doctor before deciding whether they are the right fit for your family.  Here are my answers.

 

1. Do you belong to a group practice? Who covers for you when you’re not available?

I am the primary doctor for Doctor At Your Door.  Dr. Spencer King MD covers for me when I'm not available (for example, if I am away on vacation).  I have a...

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